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Dr Anja Schmidt

Environmental and climatic effects of volcanic gases and aerosols

I am an Interdisciplinary Lecturer in Climate Modelling jointly affiliated with the Departments of Chemistry and Geography. I combine expertise in atmospheric science, climate modelling, and volcanology to advance the current understanding of volcanic impacts and hazards. In particular, I investigate the impact of volcanism on atmospheric chemistry, climate, air quality, human health, ecosystems and aviation using a wide range of atmospheric models and volcanological datasets. I am particularly interested in continuously degassing volcanoes and effusive Icelandic volcanic eruptions and their effects on air quality and climate. I am convinced that these eruptions serve as a perfect natural lab and can help better understand and quantify aerosol-cloud interactions.


I have extensively studied the most recent Icelandic eruption at Holuhraun (Bárðarbunga volcano). Starting in August 2014, Holuhraun erupted effusively for 6 months and emitted up to nine times as much sulphur dioxide per day as all European industry combined, which led to a measureable episodic degradation of air quality across Northern Europe in September 2014 (see Schmidt et al., 2015). Combining satellite observations with numerical modelling, we were also able to demonstrate that the eruption had a discernable effect on the brightness of low-level clouds over the North Atlantic (Gettelman et al., 2015; Malavelle et al., 2017).


Strong constraints on aerosol-cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions
FF Malavelle, JM Haywood, A Jones, A Gettelman, L Clarisse, S Bauduin, RP Allan, IHH Karset, JE Kristjánsson, L Oreopoulos, N Cho, D Lee, N Bellouin, O Boucher, DP Grosvenor, KS Carslaw, S Dhomse, GW Mann, A Schmidt, H Coe, ME Hartley, M Dalvi, AA Hill, BT Johnson, CE Johnson, JR Knight, FM O'Connor, P Stier, G Myhre, S Platnick, GL Stephens, H Takahashi, T Thordarson
– Nature
Understanding the environmental impacts of large fissure eruptions: Aerosol and gas emissions from the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland)
E Ilyinskaya, A Schmidt, TA Mather, FD Pope, C Witham, P Baxter, T Jóhannsson, M Pfeffer, S Barsotti, A Singh, P Sanderson, B Bergsson, B McCormick Kilbride, A Donovan, N Peters, C Oppenheimer, M Edmonds
– Earth and Planetary Science Letters
The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model
DJ Ivy, S Solomon, D Kinnison, MJ Mills, A Schmidt, RR Neely
– Geophysical Research Letters
Assessing eruption column height in ancient flood basalt eruptions
LS Glaze, S Self, A Schmidt, SJ Hunter
– Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Monsoon circulations and tropical heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the stratosphere
S Solomon, D Kinnison, RR Garcia, J Bandoro, M Mills, C Wilka, RR Neely, A Schmidt, JE Barnes, JP Vernier, M Höpfner
– Geophysical Research Letters
The impact of synoptic weather on UK surface ozone and implications for premature mortality
RJ Pope, EW Butt, MP Chipperfield, RM Doherty, S Fenech, A Schmidt, SR Arnold, NH Savage
– Environmental Research Letters
Balloon-borne measurement of the aerosol size distribution from an Icelandic flood basalt eruption
D Vignelles, TJ Roberts, E Carboni, E Ilyinskaya, M Pfeffer, P Dagsson Waldhauserova, A Schmidt, G Berthet, F Jegou, JB Renard, H Ólafsson, B Bergsson, R Yeo, N Fannar Reynisson, RG Grainger, B Galle, V Conde, S Arellano, T Lurton, B Coute, V Duverger
– Earth and Planetary Science Letters
The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP): experimental design and forcing input data for CMIP6
D Zanchettin, M Khodri, C Timmreck, M Toohey, A Schmidt, EP Gerber, G Hegerl, A Robock, FSR Pausata, WT Ball, SE Bauer, S Bekki, SS Dhomse, AN Le Grande, GW Mann, L Marshall, M Mills, M Marchand, U Niemeier, V Poulain, E Rozanov, A Rubino, A Stenke, K Tsigaridis, F Tummon
– Geoscientific Model Development
Emergence of healing in the Antarctic ozone layer
S Solomon, DJ Ivy, D Kinnison, MJ Mills, RR Neely, A Schmidt
– Science
Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990–2014, using CESM1(WACCM)
MJ Mills, A Schmidt, R Easter, S Solomon, DE Kinnison, SJ Ghan, RR Neely, DR Marsh, A Conley, CG Bardeen, A Gettelman
– Journal of Geophysical Research
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01223 336369

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