Storms in the West Pacific play a crucial role in the global climate system. Starting above some of the warmest waters, they carry sufficient energy to punch through the boundary that separates the troposphere, the lowest layer in the atmosphere, from the stratosphere above. In doing so, they reach as high as 20 km and carry air up from the Earth's surface. Chemicals in the air reaching the stratosphere can lead to ozone depletion. The storms are also important part for the El Nino / Southern Oscillation and the jet stream, and so affect weather and climate many thousands of miles away.