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Professor Markus Kalberer

Portrait of mk594

Chemistry of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on human health

Atmospheric aerosol particles (with a size range of a few nanometers to tens of micrometers) are key components in the climate system and are associated with respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. In both areas the chemical composition and reactivity of aerosol particles are important.

Our research activities include:

Analysis of the composition of organic aerosols

About 30-50% of atmospheric aerosol particles are composed of organic material. The chemical composition, formation pathways, and reactions of this organic material are poorly characterised.

To gain more detailed insights into the chemical composition of organic aerosols, we are using a number of state-of-the-art analytical-chemical techniques, including ultra- high resolution mass spectrometry, NMR and chromatographic methods. Changes in the organic composition of the aerosols due to atmospheric oxidation reactions are investigated, and the corresponding changes in the climate forcing and toxicity of the aerosol are explored. We are generating and reacting aerosol particles in laboratory experiments or analyse particles collected from the ambient atmosphere.

The emphasis of these analyses is currently on elucidating the role of the recently discovered high molecular weight organic oligomers and humic-like substances that are often found in atmospheric aerosol.

(a) Mass spectrum (MS) of organic aerosol particles, generated and oxidized in a laboratory set-up. Hundreds of small oligomers are generated with masses up to 1000 m/z (Kalberer et al., Science, 2004).

(b) If measured with a high resolution mass spectrometer, the elemental composition of all compounds in a MS can be determined. The oxygen to carbon atom ratios are shown here for all higher molecular weight compounds in the MS of another laboratory aerosols sample (dots represent peaks in the original MS), which allows the deduction of possible formation mechanisms and structures of oligomers and monomers (Reinhardt et al., Anal.Chem., 2007).

Development of analytical-chemical instrumentation

To advance our knowledge of the chemical composition of aerosols novel analytical methods and instrumentation are required. Recently we have introduced a number of new analytical techniques to the field of atmospheric sciences, most notable in the field of mass spectrometry. We are currently developing analytical methods and instruments to identify and quantify the components of aerosol that are relevant to human health effects.

Interactions of aerosol particles with the lung

Epidemiological studies have shown correlations between aerosol particle exposure and a range of adverse health effects. However, the interaction of particles with the lung, the main pathway of undesired particle uptake, are not well known and a mechanistic understanding of particle effects in lung cells is lacking. We recently built a particle deposition chamber, which allows for an accurate deposition of nanometer sized aerosol particles on lung cell cultures mimicking accurately the in vivo physiological conditions. In collaboration with cell biologists and toxicologists we are investigating the effects of particle composition and particle source on the biochemical and physiological responses of lung cells.


Fluorescence lifetime imaging of optically levitated aerosol: a technique to quantitatively map the viscosity of suspended aerosol particles.
C Fitzgerald, NA Hosny, H Tong, PC Seville, PJ Gallimore, NM Davidson, A Athanasiadis, SW Botchway, AD Ward, M Kalberer, MK Kuimova, FD Pope
– Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
Numerical modelling strategies for the urban atmosphere: general discussion
R MacKenzie, A Tomlin, J Kleffmann, T Karl, CN Hewitt, D Heard, K Sartelet, R Sommariva, U Baltensperger, R Harrison, S Madronich, G McFiggans, S Pandis, J Wenger, A Kiendler-Scharr, NM Donahue, R Dunmore, R Doherty, S Moller, I Kilbane-Dawe, B McDonald, A Wahner, S Zhu, A Presto, M Kalberer, M Hort, J Lee, I Nikolova, JL Jimenez, L Whalley, MS Alam, A Skouloudis
– Faraday Discuss.
Urban case studies: general discussion
W Brune, W Bloss, Z Shi, F Pope, G Fuller, PS Monks, A Tomlin, T Karl, M Hort, C Mohr, R MacKenzie, A Vlachou, Z Tian, LJ Kramer, D Heard, R Purvis, X Querol, U Baltensperger, R Dunmore, R Harrison, T Murrells, JL Jimenez, E Cross, G McFiggans, A Kiendler-Scharr, T-R Ho, A Charron, T Wallington, N Krishna Kumar, S Pieber, F Geiger, A Wahner, E Mitchell, A Prévôt, A Skouloudis, M Kalberer, B McDonald, CN Hewitt, C Sioutas, NM Donahue, J Lee, D van Pinxteren, S Moller, MC Minguillón, M Shafer, D Carslaw, C Ehlers, S Pandis
– Faraday Discuss.
Chemical complexity of the urban atmosphere and its consequences: general discussion.
F Geiger, F Pope, R MacKenzie, W Brune, PS Monks, W Bloss, G Fuller, N Moussiopoulos, M Hort, A Tomlin, A Presto, D van Pinxteren, A Vlachou, D Heard, CN Hewitt, U Baltensperger, A Lewis, X Querol, S Kim, J Hamilton, R Sommariva, G McFiggans, R Harrison, JL Jimenez, E Cross, J Wenger, S Pandis, A Kiendler-Scharr, NM Donahue, L Whalley, B McDonald, S Pieber, A Prévôt, MS Alam, N Krishna Kumar, A Wahner, A Skouloudis, M Kalberer, T Wallington, R Dunmore
– Faraday Discuss.
N Davidson, H-J Tong, M Kalberer, PC Seville, A Ward, M Kuimova, FD Pope
Molecular composition of organic aerosols at urban background and road tunnel sites using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry.
H Tong, I Kourtchev, P Pant, IJ Keyte, IP O'Connor, JC Wenger, FD Pope, RM Harrison, M Kalberer
– Faraday Discussions
Cloud condensation nuclei activity, droplet growth kinetics, and hygroscopicity of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)
DF Zhao, A Buchholz, B Kortner, P Schlag, F Rubach, H Fuchs, A Kiendler-Scharr, R Tillmann, A Wahner, K Watne, M Hallquist, JM Flores, Y Rudich, K Kristensen, AMK Hansen, M Glasius, I Kourtchev, M Kalberer, TF Mentel
– Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Direct imaging of changes in aerosol particle viscosity upon hydration and chemical aging
NA Hosny, C Fitzgerald, A Vyšniauskas, A Athanasiadis, T Berkemeier, N Uygur, U Pöschl, M Shiraiwa, M Kalberer, FD Pope, MK Kuimova
– Chem. Sci.
Effects of spatial sensitivity on mass sensing with bulk acoustic mode resonators
AT Zielinski, A Prasad, AA Seshia, M Kalberer, RL Jones
– Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Cloud condensation nucleation activities of calcium carbonate and its atmospheric ageing products
MJ Tang, J Whitehead, NM Davidson, FD Pope, MR Alfarra, G McFiggans, M Kalberer
– Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
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Research Group

Research Interest Group

Telephone number

01223 336392 (shared)
01223 336487 (shared)

Email address